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Earth Science Chapter 11 - Summary Notes
· Erosion is the removal and transport of surface material, such as rock and soil. Erosion by water formed the Grand Canyon.
· The water cycle is the continuous movement of water from the air onto land into the ground and back to water sources.
· Evaporation occurs when water becomes vapor. The water comes back onto land in the form of precipitation. Precipitation is rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls from falls from the clouds.
· Runoff is water that flows across the land, from rivers and into the ocean. Water also seeps into the ground by infiltration.
· Tributaries are smaller streams or rivers that flow into larger ones.
· Streams follow a path called a channel. When streams increase in length, they become rivers.
· Deposition is the process by which material is dropped. Rock and soil deposited downstream is called alluvium.
· Most of the world’s caves formed as ground water dissolved limestone.
· Less than 1% of the Earth’s water is used for drinking. 3% is drinkable, but most of that is frozen.
· It’s therefore important to preserve our water. Sewage treatment plants are factories that clean the waste materials out of water.
· The average US household uses about 100 gallons of water per day. Industry uses even more.