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Earth Science Chapter 4 - Chapter Notes
Š Rock is a solid mixture of crystals of one or more minerals. Some rocks, such as coal, are made from organic materials.
Š The rock cycle is a process by which one rock type changes to another.
Š Rocks are classified into sedimentary rocks, metamorphic rocks, and igneous rocks.
Š Rocks can be further categorized by composition. For example, limestone’s composition is 95% calcite and 5% aragonite.
Š Deeper in the earth’s crust, it is so hot that rocks can melt to form magma. Cooled magma turns back into a solid rock that we call igneous rock.
Š The igneous rock inside the earth is intrusive. The igneous rock on the surface is extrusive. Volcanic rocks are made from extrusive rocks.
Š Lava does not always come from volcanoes. Sometimes it erupts from long cracks in the Earth’s surface called fissures.
Š Sedimentary rock is naturally compacted in layers called strata. The Grand Canyon contains strata.
Š Sedimentary rock can come from living things. Limestone in the sea is made of the remains of tiny organisms called coral.
Š Metamorphic rocks are those that have undergone change from pressure, heat, or both. Foliated metamorphic rock consists of minerals aligned to look like pages in a book. Nonfoliated metamorphic rock has no regular pattern.