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Earth Science 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 -:- Life Science 1 - 2 - 3 - 3b - 4 - 4b - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 -:- Physical Science 3

Other Chapters' Notes:

Earth Science 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 -:- Life Science 1 - 2 - 3 - 3b - 4 - 4b - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 -:- Physical Science 3

 

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Earth Science Chapter 8

 

        Seismology is the study of earthquakes.

        Earthquakes occur mostly at the edges of tectonic plates, giant masses of solid rock that cover the earth.

        Faults, which are breaks in the Earthís crust, are especially present at tectonic plate boundaries.

        Rocks stretch and squeeze like a spring during an earthquake, which causes seismic waves.

        Seismic waves inside the Earth are body waves, and seismic waves on the Earthís surface are surface waves.Surface waves are more destructive.

        Seismographs help to locate earthquakes, determine when they occurred, and measure their strength.

        The Richter scale is used to measure earthquake strength.A one point increase on the scale indicates a 31.7 times increase in energy release.

        On the Richter scale, a magnitude of 2.0 is small and canít be felt by humans.A magnitude of 4.0 can be felt by most in the area.A magnitude of 6.0 causes widespread damage, and a magnitude of 7.0 causes the greatest damage.

        Buildings are often constructed to resist earthquakes.Flexible pipes prevent water and gas lines from breaking.Base isolators use steel and rubber to absorb shock.

        In the event of an earthquake, the best thing to do is lie or crouch under cover in the center of the room.If youíre in a car outside, remain in the car.

        Seismographs left on the moon have detected moonquakes.

        Sunquakes are caused by solar flares, powerful magnetic disturbances in the sun.