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Earth Science Chapter 2 - Summary Notes
á A map is a model or representation of the EarthÕs surface.
á The round Earth turns on its axis, which is the imaginary line that runs through it. The two ends of the axis are the North Pole and South Pole.
á We use these poles to define the cardinal directions: north, south, east, and west. A compass helps us find these directions; it points towards the Magnetic North Pole.
á The Magnetic North Pole is not quite lined up with the Geographic North Pole, which is one end of the EarthÕs axis. We call the Geographic North Pole ÒTrue North.Ó
á We can still use a compass to find True North by adjusting for the angle difference between True North and Magnetic North. This difference is called magnetic declination.
á Lines of latitude, also called parallels, are imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator. We label the equator 0 degrees and the two poles 90 degrees North and 90 degrees South.
á Lines of longitude or meridians, pass through the poles perpendicular to the equator. The 0 degree meridian is called the prime meridian. It passes through Greenwich, England.
á Maps show important information. The scale gives the relationship between the distance on the map and the actual distance. The compass rose shows how the map is positioned in relation to true north. The legend explains all the symbols on the map, like roads and highways.
á Topographic maps show elevation, which is how high something is above sea level.
á Contour lines on topographic maps show elevation. Each line represents an elevation.