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Life Science Chapter 6 - Summary Notes
Structure-what is DNA composed of?
Function-how does DNA work?
Application-how does understanding genetics benefit us?
∑ Genes are located on chromosomes, which are in the nucleus of most cells.
∑ Chromosomes are made of protein and DNA, short for deoxyribonucleic acid.
∑ DNA is made of four subunits known as nucleotides.† Each nucleotide has a sugar, a phosphate, and a base.
∑ The four bases are adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. (Bram, this is very fundamental)
∑ Adenine binds to thymine while guanine binds to cytosine. (This too is most fundamental).
∑ Groups of three bases code for a specific amino acid.† For example, AGC makes serine.
∑ Long strings of amino acids form proteins, and proteins send the chemical messages that determine all our traits: how tall we will grow, what colors we see, whether our hair is curly or straight.
∑ Mutations occur when the order of bases in an organismís DNA changes.† Mutations are caused by mutagens, like radiation.
∑ A deletion mutation is when a base is left out.† An insertion mutation is when an extra base is added.
∑ Genetic engineering is a way scientists use mutations in a beneficial way.† It is used to manufacture desired proteins, repair damaged genes, and cure diseases.
∑ A pedigree is a sort of family tree that follows traits through generations of a family.† It is useful to predict whether a person carries an allele for a hereditary disease.