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Earth Science 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 -:- Life Science 1 - 2 - 3 - 3b - 4 - 4b - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 -:- Physical Science 3

Other Chapters' Notes:

Earth Science 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 -:- Life Science 1 - 2 - 3 - 3b - 4 - 4b - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 -:- Physical Science 3

 

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Life Science Chapter 6 - Summary Notes

 

Structure-what is DNA composed of?

Function-how does DNA work?

Application-how does understanding genetics benefit us?

 

Structure:

        Genes are located on chromosomes, which are in the nucleus of most cells.

        Chromosomes are made of protein and DNA, short for deoxyribonucleic acid.

        DNA is made of four subunits known as nucleotides.Each nucleotide has a sugar, a phosphate, and a base.

        The four bases are adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. (Bram, this is very fundamental)

        Adenine binds to thymine while guanine binds to cytosine. (This too is most fundamental).

 

Function:

        Groups of three bases code for a specific amino acid.For example, AGC makes serine.

        Long strings of amino acids form proteins, and proteins send the chemical messages that determine all our traits: how tall we will grow, what colors we see, whether our hair is curly or straight.

        Mutations occur when the order of bases in an organismís DNA changes.Mutations are caused by mutagens, like radiation.

        A deletion mutation is when a base is left out.An insertion mutation is when an extra base is added.

 

Application:

        Genetic engineering is a way scientists use mutations in a beneficial way.It is used to manufacture desired proteins, repair damaged genes, and cure diseases.

        A pedigree is a sort of family tree that follows traits through generations of a family.It is useful to predict whether a person carries an allele for a hereditary disease.